Archiv der Kategorie: global change

China, USA an the Geopolitics of Lithium


China, USA and the Geopolitics of Lithium

By F. William Engdahl

For several years since the global push to develop mass-scale Electric Vehicles, the element Lithium has come intofocus as a strategic metal. Demand is enormous in China, in the EU and in the USA at present, and securing control over lithium supplies is already developing its own geopolitics not unlike that for the control of oil.

For China, which has set major targets to become the world’s largest producer of EVs, developing lithium battery materials is a priority for the 13th Five-Year Plan (2016-20) period. Though China has its own lithium reserves, recovery is limited, and China has gone to secure lithium mining rights abroad. Read more…

China’s Vision for the Future: „Give Peace a Chance“ – Global Research

China’s vision for the future is “Give Peace a Chance”.

Quelle: China’s Vision for the Future: „Give Peace a Chance“ – Global Research

Peter Koenig is an economist and geopolitical analyst. He is also a water resources and environmental specialist. He worked for over 30 years with the World Bank and the World Health Organization around the world in the fields of environment and water. He lectures at universities in the US, Europe and South America. He writes regularly for Global Research; ICH; RT; Sputnik; PressTV; The 21st century; Greanville Post; Defend Democracy Press, TeleSUR; The Saker Blog, the New Eastern Outlook (NEO); and other internet sites. He is the author of Implosion – An Economic Thriller about War, Environmental Destruction and Corporate Greed – fiction based on facts and on 30 years of World Bank experience around the globe. He is also a co-author of The World Order and Revolution! – Essays from the Resistance.

Revisiting the win-win-win-win outcome in Syria – The Saker

A bird’s eye view of the vineyard

Revisiting the win-win-win-win outcome in Syria

[this analysis was written for the Unz Review]

In his recent article “The Road to Damascus: How the Syria War Was Won” Pepe Escobar summarized the outcome of the war in Syria in the following way:

It’s a quadruple win. The U.S. performs a face saving withdrawal, which Trump can sell as avoiding a conflict with NATO ally Turkey. Turkey has the guarantee – by the Russians – that the Syrian Army will be in control of the Turkish-Syrian border. Russia prevents a war escalation and keeps the Russia-Iran-Turkey peace process alive. And Syria will eventually regain control of the entire northeast.”

This otherwise excellent summary overlooks two out of three members of the “Axis of Kindness”, including Israel and the KSA.  Of course, later in his analysis Pepe does address these actors, and also includes Kuwait. Furthermore, a thorough discussion of what took place would have to also include China, Hezbollah, Yemen and the EU (well, the ones that matter, the UK and France.  The rest are just voiceless colonies of the USA).

Most of the analyses of what just took place focused on the “what”.  I will try to look into the “why” and the “how” of what just happened in Syria.  Still,  I don’t propose to make such a detailed analysis, but I do want to re-classify the actors in a somewhat different way: by their relative strength.

Actor Theoretical Strength
The “Axis of Kindness”:United States+CENTCOM+NATO+Israel+KSA by far the most powerful actor almost by any measure: a bigger military force then all the other actors combined (at least when looked at regionally), huge economic power (the dollar is still THE #1 currency on the planet), total control of the region (via CENTCOM) and quasi unconditional support from Europe (via NATO).  Finally, Israel does pack a powerful military punch.  This actor has only ONE weakness, but more about that later.
Iran+Hezbollah+Houthi+Shia forces in Iraq in regional terms, Iran is the local superpower which can even successfully defy the Axis of Kindness forces (and has done so since the Islamic Revolution of 1979).
Russia+Syria I placed Russia and Syria in the same group and I could have added Iran, but since I believe that Russia objectively has more power over the Syrian government than Iran, I think that it is important to put Russia and Syria together simply because Damascus cannot say “no” to Moscow, but could do so, at least in theory, to Tehran.  Finally, Russia and Iran agree on the main issues, but have different visions for the future of the Middle-East.  Thus this is another reason to look at them separately, even if not necessarily in opposition to each other.  In military terms, Russia is very strong, then very vulnerable, then very strong again, it all depends on your level of analysis (see below)
Turkey+pro-Turkish factions in Syria That one is a difficult one to classify.  On one hand, Turkey does not have any regional allies (the Ottoman Empire left only hatred and deep resentment in its former colonies).  For a while, the pro-Turkish factions, which were liberally showered with weapons, money, training, logistical support, etc, by the US and the KSA, but eventually these factions grew weaker and weaker until they reached a state of advanced impotence leaving Turkey pretty much alone (we will also look into that below).
The Kurds For a while, they sure looked potentially powerful: not only did the Kurds have a pretty big military power (albeit mostly one restricted to infantry), they had the support of Axis of Kindness and, especially, Israel which saw any form of Independent Kurdistan as a great tool to weaken and even threaten Iraq, Turkey, Iran and Syria.  Furthermore, the Kurds happened to control a lot of oil rich regions and they could always retreat in the mountainous areas if needed.
The Takfiris (i.e. the many and constantly name-changing franchises of what used to be called “al-Qaeda”). In reality, the Takfiris really ought to be classified together with the Axis of Kindness since they have been the foot-soldiers/cannon-fodder for the AngloZionist since the 1980s (from Afghanistan then to modern day Syria).  Nonetheless, we will consider them as distinct from the rest of the Axis of Kindness forces.

Of course, and just like any other taxonomy, this one is necessarily somewhat subjective and others might use different criteria or categories.  Now let’s look at what I believe is the key to the control of the entire region: the ability to place “boots on the ground” or the lack of such an ability: (…)

Source: http://thesaker.is/revisiting-the-win-win-win-win-outcome-in-syria/?fbclid=IwAR3FrI33yyB0PDDMmwuuX7GI82o42aT2_zptfyZUj3WdExOqOYpxh7JsP90

 

 

Dr. Gary G. Kohls: Why Do Good People Become Silent About the Documented Facts that Disprove the Official 9/11 Narrative … and others

Martin Zeis
11.09.2019
 
 
Preliminary remarks by Prof Michel Chossudovsky
September 9, 2019
 
 
September 9, 2001: Two Days Before 9/11, Global Research Was Born …

On the 9th of September 2001, the Global Research website at www.globalresearch.ca was born, two days before the tragic events of September 11.

We started up in late August with a handmade web design in FrontPage. A student in philosophy gave me a hand in drafting the home page and putting the project online.

On the morning of September 8, I took a two hour “crash course” on the use of file transfer FTP software from a young software specialist, who taught me how to upload articles to the website.

Among our first articles was a coverage of the events surrounding 9/11 and the subsequent invasion of Afghanistan on October 7.

From these modest beginnings, with virtually no resources, the Centre for Research on Globalization (CRG) has evolved into a dynamic research and independent media group.

The landscape of the internet has shifted dramatically during the 18 years we have been in operation. Over the last five years, freedom of expression has become a key issue, with censorship becoming more prevalent and insidious. The situation for independent media has changed significantly, and not for the better. Despite this, in the face of large corporations attempting to censor our content and curtail our traffic and revenue, we are still here (…)

source:https://www.globalresearch.ca/september-9-2001-2-days-before-911-global-research-was-born/5303875

———————-

 

18 years later

 

9/11 Truth: Why Do Good People Become Silent About Documented Fact that Disprove the Official 9/11Narrative

By Dr. Gary G. KohlsThese “9/11 Truthers” have been unfairly labeled “conspiracy theorists” (a pejorative term invented by the CIA after the John F. Kennedy assassination in 1963 raised all sorts of skepticism doubting the official story blaming “the single shooter”). 

Read more: https://www.globalresearch.ca/why-do-good-people-become-silent-about-documentable-facts-disprove-official-white-house-conspiracy-theories-about-911/5688109

 

Where Was Osama bin Laden on September 10, 2001? One Day Before 9/11. His Whereabouts Were Known

By Prof Michel ChossudovskyThis CBS Report suggests that Osama bin Laden had been admitted to a Pakistani Military hospital in Rawalpindi on the 10th local time, less than 24 hours before the terrorist attacks. 

Read more: https://www.globalresearch.ca/where-was-osama-bin-laden-on-september-10-2001-one-day-before-911-he-was-in-a-pakistani-military-hospital/5607143
 

 

9/11 after 18 Years. „Hard Evidence Cannot Prevail over a Transparent Official Lie“

By Dr. Paul Craig RobertsThe 9/11 Commission report was not an investigation and ignored all forensic evidence. The NIST simulation of Building 7’s collapse was rigged to get the desired result. The only real investigations have been done by private scientists, engineers, and architects. 

Read more: https://www.globalresearch.ca/911-after-18-years-hard-evidence-cannot-prevail-over-a-transparent-official-lie/5688559
 

 

Who Is Osama Bin Laden?

 

By Prof Michel ChossudovskyA few hours after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Centre and the Pentagon, the Bush administration concluded without supporting evidence, that “Osama bin Laden and his al-Qaeda organisation were prime suspects”. CIA Director George Tenet stated that bin Laden has the capacity to plan “multiple attacks with little or no warning.” Secretary of State Colin Powell called the attacks “an act of war” and President Bush confirmed in an evening televised address to the Nation that he would “make no distinction between the terrorists who committed these acts and those who harbor them”. 

Read more: https://www.globalresearch.ca/osama-bin-laden/5688305

 

9/11, Drug Money, Oil Resources and the Invasion of Afghanistan: Michael Ruppert Refutes the Official 9/11Story

By Michael Welch and Michael RuppertPertinent questions as to ulterior motives for a deadly military invasion of Afghanistan, or about the failure to scramble military aircraft to intercept the hijacked airplanes when they veered off course were never asked in the prominent newspapers, television networks and other major media organs of the day. 

Read more: https://www.globalresearch.ca/911-and-drug-money/5688224

 

Another Official 9/11 Big Lie Exposed – Again

By Stephen LendmanOn September 10, 2001 (one day before 9/11), CBS News anchor Dan Rather reported his admittance to a Rawalpindi, Pakistan hospital. He was dying. 

Read more: https://www.globalresearch.ca/911-big-lie-exposed/5688163
 

 

Fire Did Not Cause 3rd Tower’s Collapse on 9/11, New Study Finds

 

By AE911TruthDespite calls for the evidence to be preserved, New York City officials had the building’s debris removed and destroyed in the ensuing weeks and months, preventing a proper forensic investigation from ever taking place. Seven years later, federal investigators concluded that WTC 7 was the first steel-framed high-rise ever to have collapsed solely as a result of normal office fires. 

Read more: https://www.globalresearch.ca/fire-did-not-cause-3rd-tower-collapse-911-new-study-finds/5688098
 

 

Call for New 9/11 Investigation: New York Area Fire Commissioners Make History

 

By Ted WalterThey started off by saying the Pledge of Allegiance. Ten minutes later, they were reading the text of a resolution claiming the existence of “overwhelming evidence” that “pre-planted explosives . . . caused the destruction of the three World Trade Center buildings.” 

Read More: https://www.globalresearch.ca/new-york-area-fire-commissioners-make-history-call-new-911-investigation/5684982

 

 

Machtachsenverschiebung

Folker Hellmyer*, einflussreicher Banker, ehemaliger Chefanalyst der Bremer Landesbank, und Alexander Rahr**, der Russlandexperte, jetzt Senior Adviser bei der Gazprom Brussels und Mitbegründer des Petersburger Dialogs, diskutieren über die Verschiebung der geopolitischen Machtachsen, d.h. der Erosion einer von den USA und den westlichen Ländern dominierten Weltordnung hin zu einem neuen Multilateralismus, in dem China, Indien, Russland und andere Länder der ehemals dritten Welt eine immer wichtigere Rolle spielen. Die erdrückende Militärmacht der USA und der Nato werden diesen Prozess vielleicht verzögern, aber auf die Dauer – trotz Wirtschaftssanktionen, trotz Handelskriegen und trotz vieler Regime Changes, die in den letzten Jahren stattgefunden haben, nicht aufhalten können. Die langfristig angelegte Politik Chinas im Rahmen des großen Seidenstraßen-Projekts zeigt, wie eine Politik der Wirtschaftsbeziehungen auf der Grundlage gegenseitiger Akzeptanz aussehen kann. Die Welt wird zukünftig multipolar geordnet werden müssen.

Die deutsche Ostpolitik der 70er Jahre ist heute weitgehend vergessen. Die Hoffnungen auf eine Welt des Friedens, der Demokratie und Verständigung zwischen gleichberechtigten Staaten („Charta von Paris“ von 1990) sind nachhaltig zerstört worden. Seit 2013 wird der Hass gegen Russland geschürt und rückt die Nato vor bis dicht an die russischen Grenze. Die Wirtschaftssanktionen gegen Russland, den Iran und andere Länder zerstören viele der wirtschaftlichen und kulturellen Beziehungen. Der Handels- und Zollkrieg der USA verschärft die Spannungen zu China immer weiter. Warum sind Deutschland und Europa nicht in der Lage, sich vom Kurs des Unilateralismus der USA zu emanzipieren? Welche Rolle spielen die Medien? Wie verschieben sich die Strukturen auf den Finanzmärkten? Folker Hellmeyer und Alexander Rahr erzählen anschaulich und mit vielen Details auch über ihre eigene Rolle. Und wie sie wegen ihrer permanenten Fordung, die Verständigung und den Ausgleich mit Russland und China zu suchen und nicht zu zerstören, als „Putinversteher“ diffamiert und immer mehr aus den Mainstream-Medien vertrieben worden sind.

Zur friedlichen Verständigung wie schon zur Zeit der Ostverträge gäbe es keine Alternative. Wir könnten und sollten, so Hellmeyer und Rahr, die gewachsenen Beziehungen zu Russland nutzen und Brücken zu China bauen. Mit sollten das Verständnis für die unterschiedlichen Kulturen der Länder fördern. Thema Nr. 1 sei heute die Ökologiefrage, die Friedenspolitik ganz in den Hintergrund gerückt. Warum könnten wir nicht eine riesige ökologische Allianz mit Russland und China schmieden, in der die drängenden ökologischen Probleme gemeinsam angepackt werden. Es gehe schließlich um das Leben auf diesem Planeten. Wenn wir eine ökologische Politik fördern wollen, müssten wir jedenfalls mit dem Schießen aufhören.

* Folker Hellmeyer
war Chefanalyst bei der Landesbank Hessen-Thüringen, bis 2018 bei der Bremer Landesbank (BLB) und jetzt bei der Solvecon Invest GmbH. Er ist ein Medienstar. Die hohe Trefferquote seiner Prognostik hat sein Renommee immer weiter verstärkt. Schließlich war er einer der wenigen, die die Weltwirtschaftskrise von 2008 vorausgesagt haben. In seinem Buch „Endlich Klartext! Ein Blick hinter die Kulissen unseres Finanzsystems“ kritisiert er mit aller Deutlichkeit die Dominanz des US-amerikanischen Finanzsystems und die schädlichen Folgen für die Marktwirtschaft und Demokratie. Der täglich erscheinende „Forex-Report“ der Solvecon Invest GmbH erreicht inzwischen hohe Auflagen. (Kann abonniert werden)

** Alexander Rahr
war tätig in vielen Thinktanks (Forschungsinstitut von Free Europe/Radio Liberty; Programmdirektor am Forschungsinstitut der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Auswärtige Politik; Forschungsaufenhalt in RAND Corporation; Projekleiter beim Deutsch-Russischen Forum; Mitbegründer des Petersburger Dialogs; Senior Advisor bei der Wintershall Holding; Senior Advisor bei Gazprom Brussels) und hat neun Bücher (darunter Biographien und Gorbatschow und Putin) unzählige Artikel und Aufsätz geschrieben. Sein letztes Buch ist etwas ganz besonderes. Es ist ein Roman, es hat den Titel „2054 – Putin decodiert“ und ist ein Science-Fiction-Tatsachen-Politthriller. Lesens- und empfehlenswert!

Sönke Hundt
moderierte das Gespräch. Er ist Professor für Betriebswirtschaftslehre an der Hochschule Bremen, Mitglied des Bremer Friedensforums und hat sich in der letzten Zeit intensiv mit Geopolitik und Propaganda beschäftigt.

Quelle: https://weltnetz.tv/video/2064-machtachsenverschiebung

 

Lula Admits, BRICS Was Created As A Tool Of Attack Against The US Dollar

Tyler Durden Sat, 08/31/2019

Authored by Pepe Escobar via The Asia Times,

In a wide-ranging, two-hour-plus, exclusive interview from a prison room in Curitiba in southern Brazil, former Brazilian president Luis Inacio Lula da Silva re-emerged for the first time, after more than 500 days in jail, and sent a clear message to the world.

Amid the 24/7 media frenzy of scripted sound bites and “fake news”, it’s virtually impossible to find a present or former head of state anywhere, in a conversation with journalists, willing to speak deep from his soul, to comment on all current political developments and relish telling stories about the corridors of power. And all that while still in prison.

The first part of this mini-series focused on the Amazon. Here, we will focus on Brazil’s relationship with BRICS and Beijing. BRICS is the grouping of major emerging economies – Brazil, Russia, India and China – that formed in 2006 and then included South Africa in their annual meetings from 2010. (…)

Pepe Escobar on his interview with Lula:

 

The Trilateral Summit: Russia-India-China (RIC) „Share a Room with a View“. Putin, Xi, Modi Meet in Secrecy – Global Research

Pepe ESCOBAR Global Research, July 01, 2019

The most important trilateral at the G20 in Osaka was confined to a shoddy environment unworthy of Japan’s unrivaled aesthetic minimalism. Japan excels in perfect planning and execution. So it’s hard to take this setup as an unfortunate “accident.” At least the – unofficial – Russia-India-China summit at the sidelines of the G20 transcended the […]

Quelle: The Trilateral Summit: Russia-India-China (RIC) „Share a Room with a View“. Putin, Xi, Modi Meet in Secrecy – Global Research

Entdollarisierung: China und Russland wollen mehr Handel in Rubel und Yuan abwickeln

Moskau und Peking haben ein Abkommen unterzeichnet, um im bilateralen Handel weiter auf nationale Währungen umzustellen und die Abrechnungen in Yuan und Rubel um bis zu 50 Prozent zu erhöhen. Damit verstärken sie ihre Bemühungen um eine Abkehr vom US-Dollar.

Quelle: Entdollarisierung: China und Russland wollen mehr Handel in Rubel und Yuan abwickeln

The Hybrid War Against Iran

portside.org

The Hybrid War Against Iran


U.S. President Donald Trump sat in the White House and contemplated a war against Iran. His army had been sending surveillance aircraft along the Iranian coastline, teasing Iranian radar, which tracked these manned and unmanned planes as they skirted the 12 nautical mile limit of Iranian sovereignty. Last week, the United States had two planes alongside Iran’s coast—an unmanned Global Hawk drone and a manned P-8 spy plane.

Iranian air command radioed the U.S. forces to say that both the drone and the spy plane had come inside Iranian territory. The P-8 shifted course to leave Iranian airspace, while the Global Hawk continued. Iranian officials say that it was because the Global Hawk remained in Iranian airspace that it was shot down last Thursday morning at 4 a.m.

Trump and his team threatened to retaliate. They wanted to shoot at Iranian radar and anti-aircraft facilities. At the 11th hour, Trump said, he decided not to fire at Iranian targets. The Pentagon had warned him that this would threaten U.S. troops in the area. It was to protect these troops that Trump did not launch a strike.

Sanctions

Trump might not have sent in a suite of missiles to hit Iran last week, but the United States has—of course—already opened up a certain kind of war against Iran. A few days before the drone was shot down, the head of Iran’s Supreme National Security Council—Ali Shamkhani—gave a talk in Ufa, Russia, on security matters. In his talk, Shamkhani said that the United States had squashed the sovereignty of a number of countries. The U.S. Treasury Department, he said, had become a kind of financial CentCom (Central Command). Shamkhani said that the policies pursued by the United States should be considered to be “economic terrorism.”

U.S. unilateral sanctions are at the heart of this “economic terrorism.” The United States is able to use sanctions as an effective instrument against other countries because it has such enormous power over the world financial and monetary system. The U.S. dollar is the main reserve currency and the main currency of international trade. Reliance upon the U.S. dollar and on U.S. financial systems means that most countries are unwilling to stand up against U.S. pressure.

Sanctions have meant that Iran—reliant upon the export of oil and natural gas—has seen its external revenues collapse. The domination by the United States over the world financial system—including the international financial institutions (the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank) has meant that Iran has not been able to raise credit on the international market. Difficulty in importing medicines and food has produced grave challenges for the Iranian people.

Hybrid War

Since the Western media continues to set the terms of international understanding, Washington’s interpretation of events around Iran predominates. Iran has never attacked the United States, but the U.S. has in fact intervened several times in Iran. In 1953, the U.S.—with the UK—overthrew the democratically elected government of Mohammed Mossadeq and over the course of the next two decades provided full support to the unpopular government of the shah of Iran. When the Gulf Arabs pushed Saddam Hussein to attack Iran in 1980, it was the U.S.—and Western Europe—that provided Iraq with arms and money for a bloody eight-year war. All of this context is lost to the Western media, which hyperventilate about fantasy stories such as Hezbollah in Venezuela or Iranian control over the Houthis. It is always Iran that is the aggressor, even when it has been Iran at the receiving end of U.S. aggression.

Iran is seen as the cause of the problem; the idea that Iran is a rogue or terrorist state is hard to shake off. This is part of the information war that Iran faces, unable—even with a sophisticated foreign minister (Javad Zarif)—to argue its case that it has not been belligerent, but it has been at the receiving end of threats and sanctions from Washington.

Between 2010 and 2012, four Iranian nuclear scientists were killed. These scientists—Masoud Alimohammadi, Darioush Rezaeinejad, Mostafa Ahmadi Roshan and Majid Shahriari—were killed either by Israeli intelligence, the Mojahedin-e Khalq (MEK) or U.S. intelligence, or some combination of all of them. These scientists were killed inside Iran, in broad daylight. It sent a chill through the scientific community. A U.S. and Israeli created computer worm—Stuxnet—hit Iranian computer systems in 2010, creating damage to Iran’s computers that held part of its nuclear work. It was announced that more such attacks were possible. These took place before the nuclear deal was agreed upon in 2015. But the stench of such attacks remains.

Iran’s minister of information and communications technology—Mohammad Javad Azari Jahromi—said that Iran has built a firewall that protects its facilities from any cyber-weapon thrown at it by the U.S. and Israel. This firewall is built by Iranian computer scientists.

It is this combination of attacks—the sanctions, the information war, the sabotage—that comprises the “hybrid war” against Iran (for more on the concept of “hybrid war,” see the dossier on Venezuela from Tricontinental: Institute for Social Research). This hybrid war continues, with the threats of war as part of the arsenal wielded by Washington against Iran. Even Trump’s statement that he withdrew the order to bomb Iran just minutes before the attack began is part of this information war, this attempt to terrify Iranians into the belief that the U.S. is dangerous enough to drop bombs at any time. The hybrid war tightens the noose around Iran.

Group Against Sanctions

It is not easy to untangle the reliance of the world economy to the U.S. dollar and to U.S. financial systems. Even talk of multilateralism is premature. It is one thing to call for it and another to recognize that it will take at least a decade to create the institutions and instruments for multilateralism. Confidence in the Chinese yuan, for instance, will need to be built. So will confidence in alternative systems to transfer money and to reconcile trades. The European Union said openly that it wanted an alternative mechanism to pay Iran for oil, one that would not run through U.S. sanctions. But such an instrument could not be created. It will take time.

On the political plane, about 25 countries have come together to create a platform against sanctions.

Meanwhile, on the political plane, about 25 countries have come together to create a platform against sanctions. These countries, says Iran’s senior parliamentarian Mohammad Ali Pourmokhtar, will stand together against the “inhumane” U.S. sanctions regime. It is not clear what this group will be able to do, but it is certainly the case that they will conduct a political campaign against the kind of harsh sanctions that are currently on Venezuela, Cuba, and Iran.

It is significant that China and Russia will be involved with this club. In Tehran, Russia’s Ambassador Levan Dzhagaryan said that China, Iran and Russia will form a trilateral group to fight against the U.S. unilateral war on Iran.

The group of 25 will struggle against sanctions and the group of three will try to prevent a U.S. war—but whether they can prevail is a serious question. The United States—under Trump—is utterly unreliable, its military arsenal ready to be unleashed, its hybrid war already unfurled. These are dangerous times.

This article was produced by Globetrotter, a project of the Independent Media Institute.

This piece is published as well here:
https://www.asiatimes.com/2019/06/opinion/the-hybrid-war-against-iran/?fbclid=IwAR3lO4qkMQ8UsDU6h2Wz7p7I86iYWVfejelO4V1WmP5uggX2w_ksJDcxwPs

 

Vijay Prashad

Vijay Prashad is an Indian historian, editor and journalist. He is a writing fellow and chief correspondent at Globetrotter, a project of the Independent Media Institute. He is the chief editor of LeftWord Books and the director of Tricontinental: Institute for Social Research. He has written more than 20 books, including The Darker Nations: A People’s History of the Third World, The Poorer Nations: A Possible History of the Global South, The Death of the Nation and the Future of the Arab Revolution, and Red Star Over the Third World. He writes regularly for Frontline, The Hindu, Newsclick, AlterNet and BirGün.

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